Fundus examination

Fundus examination is an important method to examine vitreous, retinal, choroidal and optic nerve diseases.


The optic disc is normal. The optic disc is slightly oval, light red, with clear boundary, and funnel-shaped depression in the center, which is called physiological depression.


The diameter ratio of artery to vein was 23.


The macula is located at 2-2.5pd (optic disc diameter) of the temporal edge of the posterior pole of the eyeball. It is slightly lower. The size of the macula is about one optic disc or a little larger. There is no blood vessel in it. There is a reflective point with a needle tip in the center of the macula, which is called foveal light reflection.


When the retina is normal, the retina is transparent, and the fundus is uniform dark orange. When there is choroidal vascular penetration, leopard like fundus is formed.


Abnormal results:


There are edema, exudation, hemorrhage, detachment and pigment spots, neovascularization and tumor.


People who need to be examined are susceptible to eye diseases.

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